Sunday, 11 March 2018 14:07

832 - Final Assignment - Advice

To give you a bit more clarity on the final project, here are some comments aligned with the various elements of the project. 

From the course, the following is the assignment description. (I have added comments to offer further explanation or examples).

Leadership in Professional Learning: Designing a Connected Classroom Program

This culminating task will help you to bring together your learning from all five modules in this course. For this final project, you will envision what connected learning could look like in your professional context (Context is important for this assignment – to really do it justice, try to describe the project within your own context as much as possible. Feel free to use an existing project that you can update or improve through the work for this assignment).  

As a culminating task, you will individually design a connected classroom project that you could use with your students (You will find it much more rewarding as well if you can design something that you could actually do. This will allow you to point out issues that may arise and give a practical edge to the work. As it is a project for your students, it needs a beginning, middle and end. There needs to be clearly defined goals for the project.).

You may choose to present this project as a project or unit plan or in another format so that you can share your ideas with your colleagues and inspire others to foster and create connections in their own teaching and learning (Whatever format you use to design your regular lessons might work, as long as it is readable and logical. For example, does your plan show sequence, materials, preparation, and the larger context of the semester or work within which the project is set?)

A successful project or program will include:

  • Strong and Authentic connection (to your larger semester or learning context, to your local learning environment e.g. are you in Canada or another country, and to the students own ‘world’)
  • Rich learning that uncovers the curriculum (For example, are there identifiable goals that require individual work, group or community work, and reflection? Do the students have a chance to contribute the design of the project? What opportunities exist to connect to other courses are elements of your curriculum?)
  • Ongoing learning– not a one-time thing (Are they developing skills as well as demonstrating new learning or knowledge? Are they building on previous work? Are there opportunities to use a product or skill beyond the end of the project? How would an interdisciplinary approach for example allow the project to persist longitudinally?)
  • Theoretically-supported pedagogy (Although there are overlaps between some of the approaches you have examined, can we discern a clear adherence to some of the principles throughout the work?)
  • Technology-Enhanced opportunities (How are they recording their work, producing their work and preserving it for posterity? How are they sharing with others and interacting with their classmates and / or the community? How does technology help them do something they couldn’t otherwise do?)
  • Feasible design (Can YOU and your students actually do the project?)

Output: Connected Classroom Program and Written Rationale (35%):

Along with your connected classroom plan, please write a rationale (600 words MAXIMUM, double-spaced) detailing (Please keep to the word count within 20%. Interestingly, virtually no student ever goes under the word count. Use a proper essay / academic writing format as indicated in the blog post about your case students):

  • How the program relates to pedagogical approaches (cite scholarly work)
    • Also, refer to the approaches discusses in this coursed
  • How you decided which digital technologies to incorporate
    • Give a reasoned discussion of how the technology tools will support the work. You can also note if part of the project is to expose students to the possibilities offered by a particular technology.
  • Who you could share this work with and how you might share it.
    • This is partially in relation to technology. What tools will allow you to share with which groups? Internationally? Nationally? Locally?
  • Why you chose this approach and how it shows professional growth from your previous teaching and/or planning.
    • Relate to previous knowledge or learning, especially from other Queens courses.

Both components of this assignment (project plan and rationale) should be shared on the Leadership in Professional Learning Discussion Board.


For those of you who are not actually teaching, here is some feedback I provided to a student who also does not  teach.


“I have just read through the assignment again and watched the video (again!), and read your introduction to remind myself of your context, so I have some familiarity with your role. Here are a few thoughts.

Since you are a point of first contact, or at least, first sustained contact with parents, perhaps you could build on your appreciative inquiry work (https://positivechange.org/how-we-work/appreciative-inquiry-ai/ ) from the earlier assignment and try to think (Dream in the 4D model) of what you think parents could do to contribute to the school and their children’s success through your interactions.

Then, build your project around that (the next 2 ‘D’s, with the intent hopefully of attaining the 4th). I think that will easily comply with the requirements and the rubric.

For example,

  • What do they need from you to keep in touch with teachers?
  • How do they find out about the inner workings of the school and not just the parent-day events.
  • How can you facilitate communications between parents, and between parents and the school, parents and their teachers, and parents and their own children.

 Keep in mind the community aspect and your role at the school. If you use Appreciative Inquiry as your theoretical model for your work and build on the 4D model then you will be inspired to really do something that is real and that you could actually do.

You could even get your colleagues to give you an hour over lunch and work through the 4d model with them in the context of your project. They might give you some great ideas that you can work with.

Capture all your thinking and make it visible. That will help you to design the project part. You might want to use Prezi and think of your project as a process.

Published in PME 832 - Winter 2018
Sunday, 25 February 2018 10:24

Further comments for Modules 4 and 5

Dear Students - I hope to clarify the relationship between the two upcoming assignments and professional learning communities (PLCs).

pme 801 w 2018

Gantt Chart of Course Timeline

You should now be working toward the next assignment: Solution Concept Written Proposal. You have already started the process for this assignment. Let me try to piece together for you the process that you are following through the course.

  • In the knowledge forum, you had a chance to post your burning questions that arose out of your concept maps, and clarify connections between your questions and others' questions. 
  • You identified one or more PLCs that you thought might be useful or offer you the support that you are looking for with your teaching. I gave you feedback on the your choices. Some were very solid choices. In other cases, I cautioned you to find a PLC that you had a reasonable chance of actually connecting with. I see that many of you have in fact connected.
  • In Module two, you posted a design brief that was based on your burning questions from your concept map. This was due last week.
    • I am not going to comment on each of these individual proposals. The point was for you to post your ideas in order to find a group of like-minded classmates with whom you can work on the above noted assignment.
    • Hopefully, you will be able to use some of the technologies highlighted in your montage to help you work with members of that community.

Now, you should be communicating with other students, reviewing each other’s design briefs.

For Module 4:

  • You will join a collaborative group (2-4 participants) to start the process of analyzing your burning questions.
  • Ideally, you will select the brief  or question(s) that have the most clarity in terms of process and the most opportunity for engagement with the PLC.
    • You questions can be broadly about how to work with a professional PLC. This could be a PLC that is created at your school or within your school board. It could be with a formal PLC that many of you have chosen. Or you could focus on a collaborative inquiry question on how to engage students in a specific K-12 setting.
  • Then you will work through your project to find / propose a solution to the burning questions.
  • The instruction from the course is:
    • “The focus of your collaboration will be to design a proposed solution to a substantive problem or dilemma in a Professional Community of your group’s choosing.” You can use any collaborative technologies (e.g. Google Docs) that you see fit, and that you have investigated in the montage. Remember that you need to include a process account of your engagement with each other so you should use a technology that leaves a ‘paper trail’.
If you have not formed a group yet, please post again on the discussion board or contact me, or both.

In your groups, you will:

  • Engage in critical review of a problem and the context in which the problem exists in a community
  • Propose solutions to a problem that are sensitive to the concerns of the stakeholders
  • Prototype versions of the solution for review by other students in the course
  • Write a Design/Problem Brief that includes 
    • Introduction: description of the problem/issue that is being addressed (300 words)
    • Literature review - scholarly connections between your burning questions and the literature (500 words)
    • The proposed solution - a discussion and ‘tangible version’ of the solution (prototype, process description, tools, etc.) (500-800 words)
    • "Process account" - a summary of the process of engagement between members of your group (Annotated copy of your interactions)
    • Reference List and citations within the body of the Design/Problem Brief. 

After this has been submitted, and concurrently, each of you will be expected to digitally communicate with a chosen PLC about the value of collaborative inquiry as it relates to an authentic problem of practice. This is why I have advised many of you to think about PLCs from whom you can realistically expect to receive a reply.

**Please note that there is no reason why your entire group cannot work with the PLC individually after the group work assignment is completed to do the Module 5 individual work**

For Module 5, you will

  • Identify a Professional Community with whom to connect
  • Starting with one of your burning questions, and quite possibly the burning question you worked on with your group, take the introduction and literature review from your group work and define a set of core ideas, related to Collaborative Inquiry and based on course content, to be shared as appropriate, with your chosen PLC.
    • As with module 4, these could be more generally about interacting with informal or formal PLCs, or it could be more about creating inquiry groups within your teaching setting.
  • Connect virtually and/or physically with the PLC and document your interactions
  • Provide evidence of a connection to the identified Professional Community
  • Where virtual and/or physical connection is not possible, you will need to create a “digital foothold” where you can communicate the set of core ideas that were identified related to Collaborative Inquiry and the particular Professional Community
    • This is the point where you will find the work better and more rewarding if you can actually connect with your PLC.
    • Create a link between your digital foothold and the course.
  • You will submit a report on your success in interacting with the PLC and their responses to your questions.

Post to the D2L Discussion topic, "Our Professional Communities - Making Connections" (started in Module Two).

Published in PME-801 - Winter 2018
Friday, 23 February 2018 08:18

832 - W2018 - Case Study Feedback

Hello 832 Students,

I have compiled the feedback I gave to you. I urge you to take a few minutes to read through. You may find some inspiration by benchmarking your own feedback against that which I gave to other students.

There are two sections. The first section are general comments that I leave at the end of your assignments. 

The second section are in-text comments. Some of these may seem rather obscure because they are taken out of context, but  I think you may still benefit from seeing the nature of my comments, which range from formatting and style, to content. 

 


Part 1

 

Paul comments

This is a very interesting paper and I really liked the final section where tou bring relevance to the whole activity by relating the findings to your own practice. That was a very powerful way to conclude. This is a suggestion I will forward to the course writers. It is a great addition to the activity.

You were able to be really concise and yet give a broad range of ideas and go well beyond the expectations of the assignment without going way over the word count. You are at 1159 words which is well within an acceptable excess range. I am impressed with the hard work I know you must have done to reduce this from its original length to this length and still be overflowing with great ideas.

Nicely done!

 


Paul comments

 

First, A couple of technical points – I suggest you use headings. These are APA standard and really help to separate out the sections of your paper. This greatly increases readability. Also, you have some long paragraphs – these too are harder to read through, especially when the reader (me) is stopping to make comments or write down notes and then needs to find their place again.

Overall, this was very well organized and I think you gave a clear and concise overview of the studies and approaches therein. Your opening paragraphs were excellent and you really drew out some interesting points by comparing the two studies in the way that you did,

Your suggestions for improvement might be a bit less effective although I can certainly see the appeal of these. In some cases, they seem reasonable suggestions, but you really need to think about the reality of the context and try to find suggestions that do not cost too much or require time (almost the same thing). Ideally, they would be things that are not really changes or additions, but redirections of effort. In that way, resources such as time and money might be redirected and so you would not require more.

Anyway, this might be difficult to think about if you are not familiar with the context (e.g. with trades work in Ontario). Very nice work.

 


 Paul comments

 

Thanks for your assignment. I enjoyed reading your work. It was concise and to the point. I think you captured all of the essential information and clearly demonstrated an understanding of the approaches through the examples you provided.

I will note that your writing, while error free might use a bit more editing to remove some repetitive statements and slightly round-about expressions. I note that your word count is over the limit by about 25%. That is not unusual, but you could spend 15 minutes and remove that 25% without losing any content. In fact, this would reveal the content to me more clearly. The best papers are the ones that I don’t have to reread. If you like, I would be happy to do that for you with the first 2-3 pages of this paper as an example.

Your APA formatting might need a bit of a touch up as well. For example, the in-text citations are not entirely correct. At any rate, your work is clear and I think this was a solid effort.

 


Paul Comments

 

This is a very interesting and easy to read piece of writing. Well done! You have clearly not only thought carefully about the two case studies and your tasks in writing about them, but you have carefully crafted the writing as well to deliver a very concise and thoughtful assignment.

Your suggestions are insightful and achievable, which is a key point in offering suggestions for improvement. They have to fit the project and actually be possible. It is easy, as you note, to throw money at the projects. However, then the question is, what to do with the money.

Don’t forget to address your introductory statements clearly and directly.

 


Paul Comments

 

Hi - you are obviously very passionate about these two studies. They are no doubt very inspiring and motivating. However, I fear in your enthusiasm you may have overlooked some issues. You have touched on some of the issues such as assessment, but then you espouse the other benefits so thoroughly that the issues get lost.

This is quite long at over 1600 words for a 1000-word assignment. I think you could really shorten it by focusing on the academic element. You do mention the approaches, benefits, issues and suggestions, but they are lost somewhat in the effusive descriptions of the projects.

I think you might benefit, for the next assignment to really focus on the question and concentrate your enthusiasm for the projects. This enthusiasm is great, but it has the effect of clouding your own judgment on what to include in your writing. That is why you have gone so far over the word count.

 


Paul – Comments

 

This is a wonderful piece of writing. The writing itself is very clear and succinct. However, you have shown great thought and care in putting this together. You clearly have demonstrated a deep understanding the approaches and how to realize them in the classroom. Your suggestions for improvements are grounded, realistic and I can imagine you actually doing some of these changes.

I hope you get to actually try some of these. I think the art approach as a medium of expression, especially for young students, but also for immigrant and ESL students is excellent and very achievable.

 


Paul Comments

 

Thanks for this work. I think it has a lot of potential and you have clearly given it a lot of thought. However, my first reaction is that you have written it as a conversation piece perhaps when what is needed here is a concise piece of academic writing. So, you are at about 1750 words for a 1000-word piece.

The problem then becomes that longer pieces of writing have a tendency to repeat themselves and give a lot of detail, which may or may not be supported.

In your case, you have given lots of details, some of which flow logically from your argument, but others which are just sitting there with no basis or support from the surrounding argument.

For your next assignment, you need to try and really organize your writing and your thoughts. This is where a concept map of sorts might be useful. You can then use each paragraph as a thought and then you can compare the thoughts to see of they are coherent, concise, only one or two examples and not repeated.

I was not clear on your point about the approaches. You seem to suggest that connected learning is the overarching approach and that the other approaches you discuss are part of connected learning. This may be perhaps, but I am not sure you have support this argument.

 


Paul Comments:

 

You seem to have touched on the relevant points in these studies, but you have done so in a rather round-about way. That tells me that perhaps you are not as familiar with the approaches. Some of your comments as well may indicate that you could read more widely on case studies before selecting these. Alternatively, you need to read more widely to appreciate these two more.

I think your points are all valid but I also think that you could organize this much better to really highlight your points and by doing so, remove some repetition and thus have more of your 1000 words to express your ideas more thoroughly.

 


Paul Comments

 

This was a pleasure to read. It was well written, concise and to the point. You were able to highlight a number of excellent key points and ones that were tailored the specific examples.

I also loved your discussions about barriers and suggestions. Combining these around a discussion of the learning approaches instead of the specific case studies was great. You then brought the case studies back in with a discussion of suggestions that ties the approaches to the case studies. This is a wonderful piece of writing!

FYI - as a style point, if you do not indent new paragraphs, you need to add a line space. I prefer this style rather than indenting because it is much easier to read.

 


Paul – Comments

 

Thanks for your paper. From a strictly formatting point of view, I think you would do well to reformat and try to find a style that adheres to a more formal style such as APA. The point of these styles guides is to help you prepare paper that is easier to read and easier for you to write.

I think you have two interesting studies, but I do think you have glossed over some of the important pieces and missed an opportunity to really present a coherent comparison of the two and then be able to give solid suggestions that offer better, more holistic approaches to the studies.

You have picked out some highly relevant points and presented them clearly. However, I think you might be able to see and discuss the connections between the two more clearly.

 


Part 2

 

  • nice touch to discuss the choice of the studies
  • I would like to know if this is clearly delineated in the documentation. What are these competencies?
  • This term is often used in a negative sense. I am not clear if this is good or bad.
  • Interesting but is it practical? Would they trample the vegetables?
  • This is a nice conclusion, but I think you could shorten some other sections and put a bit more ‘conclusive’ writing into this.
  • Careful of your wording – they are not benefiting from the theory but from the practices enacted through the project. The theory just provides guidelines that help the educators get the most out of their activity.        
  • Great examples – I see the connection to the skills in the previous paragraph, but further clarity might emerge from combining these two paragraphs
  • Ha – money solves a lot of issues.
  • This is a great summary of the programs. I think you have really captured the essence of the programs. I might suggest that you try to bring in the approaches more closely, either in a concluding paragraph, or throughout the section.
  • Nevertheless, this is very clear and quite well done!
  • Absolutely – teachers need help to let go, and often for good reason – the school boards need to give teachers permission to let go a bit.
  • You could combine this with the barriers to provide clear connections between the barriers and sources of improvement, but nevertheless, this is very interesting
  • Art teachers? Aboriginal artists? Immigrant and refugee artists? E.g., http://www.canadianarabinstitute.org/events/conferences/professional-development-conference/art-and-culture/
  • Careful, this might not be true
  • Careful with such exclusive claims
  • Very nice, but this makes me ask about the assessment and focused learning? Who is managing that? These places are just places. Who is giving the focus and guiding inquiry to the activities?
  • I think that at this point, you are repeating or reiterating certain points and so this is where you need to think about reorganizing this paper. You are way over the word count of 1000 words.
  • You have a tendency to use a lot of colloquial expressions. This is fine in discussion boards, but for an academic paper, you need to really cut out idioms and colloquialisms as much as possible.
  • This is all interesting, but I feel you are bouncing around the point, and not quite getting to it. What do you want me to know about this project?
  • Can you elaborate? This is precisely why we take them out of the classroom.
  • Great opening paragraph – concise and very descriptive
  • Wonderful
  • Very much – key point
  • True, but an element of experiential learning is longitudinal – they need to spend time doing this.
  • Very concise!
  • Nice point – this is a behaviourist model as opposed to a cognitive model
  • This is actually much more exciting for students than many teachers realize.
  • Nice idea – they could do drafts in the discussion boards but submit final reflections privately to instructors.
  • This also is valuable feedback to the instructors which is often overlooked. Teachers often do not take advantage of feedback to themselves on how well students learned the content.
  • Are you sure? All schools? I have seen classrooms that do not look like this.
Published in PME 832 - Winter 2018
Sunday, 04 February 2018 16:19

801 - Concept Maps - Feedback

W2018 GDPI-PME 801-002 Collaborative Inquiry
Module 1: Collaborative Inquiry Core Concepts - Our Concepts Maps

In order to give you a broader perspective on your work, I have copied and edited all of my feedback to all students on this topic. I have grouped the comments into those focused mainly on the maps, those focused on the burning questions, and those of a more general nature. I have removed all identifying comments, and removed those that might be somewhat repetitive, or a bit vague since they are separated from the posts to which they respond.

Comments about Maps:

I like the map but I am wondering if there is more of a process to the map? For example, you have inquiry and problem solving on opposite sides. Is there a connection between the two? Is there a sequence?

I wonder if you can distinguish on your map between nodes that are titular and nodes that are explanatory?

I do like Prezi and this allows the presentation to take on a sequential feature as well as provide an overall view. I would challenge you to think about your sequence and see if you think there might be a more logical sequence, even though we are talking about open-ended systems and ill-structured domains

Also, just because the problem is ill-structured doesn't mean we can't apply some well-structured problem-solving techniques to it. This is where the idea of 'emergence' comes in (Nijs, 2015).

I like the hierarchical approach as it gives a clear idea of the two sides of the question - collaboration and inquiry / problem solving. I wonder if the logical conclusion of this is a solution at the bottom? I did think that as I was working through the map that perhaps a lot of our inquiry and problem solving is not so linear as may think and you map helps to highlight that.

I was interested to see a node on ISD versus WSD as a continuum. Do you think that? Can you elaborate on at what point a WSD becomes an ISD?

I do agree that we are continually collaborating and inquiring, but I also think that we need to produce results. At some point, we need to provide an answer to the inquiry, whether it is as a student producing a project, a teacher producing a lesson plan, or a faculty member producing a curriculum document. 


Comments about Burning Questions

Some other students have asked a very similar question. I recommend you track them down and form a group for the next section of the course.

I like your burning question as it leads to an interesting discussion I am having with my medical students. How do they manage their studies and determine when they 'know enough' and when do they need to dig deeper. In medicine, everyone outside of a family doctor / GP is a specialist.

Your burning question might be answered by the SPARK (Self and Peer Assessment Review) tool out of the University of Sydney. I saw it used to great effect when I worked at Western Sydney University.

http://sparkplus.com.au/how.php#toc--stages-of-implementation

How do we evaluate an open-ended project or a student-directed inquiry if we start with the student's project or question and not with our own question?

I like your burning question! I might wonder if it is ever too early to introduce collaborative inquiry. If you have ever watched Ken Robinson's video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG9CE55wbtY he suggests that we train students out of creativity. Perhaps if they started with ill-structured domains, and problems, they might retain more of their innate creativity.

Your questions are posed in the negative. From an appreciative inquiry POV, I challenge you to change these questions to frame what you want to see, not what you do not want to see.

I really loved your first burning question about applying these concepts from K-12 and beyond. I have found that some of the very same strategies I have used and seen used with 5 year-olds work very well with university students. The idea of making thinking visible and getting people to put their thoughts on paper is one common strategy.

For your question, I wonder if you might be able to think about the commonalities in strategies between the age levels in terms of collaborative inquiry? That would be highly practical and very useful to teachers at all levels.

With your question, my immediate response was to ask the participants. What are their goals and what are commonalities in their goals. Groups comprised of the three professions might provide an answer? In adult learning, we need to make the purpose of the learning clear, however I wonder if the participants, as adults, bring their own motivation? Is that too simplistic?

I think there is a need to draw upon some principles of adult learning in this context. Are you familiar with the general principles?

I see you have a question about motivation. Do you find yourself struggling with this issue? I wonder if students get used to working on well-structured problems and then become bored with the patterns of solving such problems?


General Comments

Don't forget that the facilitator's framework is really just one model. However, it loosely follows any good research format - Question, methods, data, answer.

I like the notion of "meeting kids where they are at". I like to temper this with "getting them where they need to be". How do you balance this with such things as student-led inquiry and, individual needs and similar approaches?

I would argue that from an appreciative inquiry perspective, collaborative inquiry doesn't necessarily fail if we do not get an answer. We would know that we need to look further afield, but is that failure? I do not agree that we cannot fail, but I do think we need to be careful about what constitutes failure. This might be a matter of semantics, but I think it is important to frame that point carefully with our students.

You state, "Teaching kids to create through process". I have commented to others the question of how do we balance process and product? In elementary levels (K-8 for example), do we need to focus much more on process?

I am a huge advocate of technology but not until we know what we need to do. Then we find the tech tools to help us do it. Of course, sometimes a great tool can open up avenues that we did not know would be possible.

One quote notes that problem solvers must believe that they can solve the problem. This is true, but perhaps not unlike Vygotsky's ZPD - we need to be 'close' to the knowledge we are learning to fit it to our schema. I would add then that the problem solvers also need to see the value in solving the problem.

Published in PME-801 - Winter 2018
Sunday, 04 February 2018 11:32

832 - Case Studies Assignment

Hello – in response to some questions about the case study assignment, and to let you know what I am looking for, here are some comments I have given to your classmates.

First, try to get your discussion board post out as early as possible. This will allow your classmates time to respond to you before you write your assignment.

I have also revised the feedback I gave to students from the last semester (see full feedback here: http://www.paulleslie.net/index.php/courses/pme-832/item/745-832-f2017-case-feedback ) on this assignment. By reviewing some of the principle comments, you might be better guided in your work on this assignment.

Specific feedback to students:

Response 1: In the article, there seems to be only a passing reference to anything from our list of connected learning methodologies. There is some attempt at networked learning and social interaction. If you would like to investigate this article as a case study, you would want to highlight how some activities could be introduced at an MBA level that would support connected learning. It would be interesting to contrast MBA level work with K-12 work. I have found that strategies often promoted for early childhood classes work also perfectly well in a university setting.

Note that the article discusses social issues at Harvard, not academic or pedagogic issues. So, you might need to look at Appreciative Inquiry as a means of improving the pedagogy which in turns pushes out the social issues through sound pedagogic practice.

Also, be aware that the list of connected learning styles is not complete and they are describing an approach to teaching. They do not necessarily offer a reason for or outcome of their learning. In all cases, the outcomes are around trying to help students connect their own learning to the wider world to give it context and purpose.

 Response 2: So, I would suggest that you examine your own work, reflect on your teaching methodologies and then find two readings on pedagogic issues within your particular field. These can be anything that highlight a teaching practice or teaching and learning issue within your field. Please send them to me as well and I will review them. Then, together we can craft a more detailed assignment outline for you that meets the criteria for the course, but yet responds to your specific needs. The more you can relate these studies to your own context, the more rewarding the course will be.

For example, you might examine how these cases might apply to your context, discuss barriers that you think impede your ability to improve your own practice and then as a conclusion make suggestions for yourself that you can pursue to improve your efforts.

So, please feel free to pursue this article and approach, especially if it speaks to your own interests and strengths. Just, keep a focus on the pedagogy of connectedness and the purpose of being connected. Connectedness is not an end or outcome in itself.

In-text Comments

These comments are organized into three sections. The first are in-text comments that relate to specific instances in the assignments. I selected some that I thought were revealing to the writing itself. The next two sections are from my general comments. I organized them by Positive feedback and constructive feedback. Some are based on the content of the assignment, and some are based on the technical aspects - the writing style and citations.


Great start – could you add just one sentence showing some connection between the two, or why you chose them?

It might be good to just introduce both schools here in one short sentence. You have both in your title, but you need to mention here just what you are doing.

Careful with value-laden adjectives. This may be unfortunate, but I can make that determination from the facts and organization of your sentence. This sounds like being flexible is a bad thing.

Can you provide a conclusion that ties the two studies together or highlights some general improvements that both styles would benefit from – reflection seems to be a common theme.

Interesting conclusion. I would like to see a strong discussion about the comparisons between the two.

To be concise, just leave out colloquialisms. This is a different form of writing than a discussion board

Only use tables for numerical data or very short text-based data. This all should be in paragraph form. It is harder to write perhaps, but easier to read.

You have already talked about this topic a few times. Can you reorganize your paragraphs to bring a more coherent argument?


Positive feedback

It might be useful for you to go through and see where you can cut down on your word count without losing any ideas.

You have given me a great piece of writing. You stepped out of the assignment box and discussed these two case studies in tandem, which really gave your writing a great focus and a means for you to put your comments into a wider context between the two studies.


Constructive feedback

You have given an interesting discussion of two solid case studies. However, I would like to see you really dig into the actual content of the courses. If you look at my comments above, you will see that you bring up important elements of the case studies but do not fully explore them.

You also have a tendency to use very colloquial language. Students who use this style often get a bit lost in the discussion and do not get to the point.

By using tables as you did, I think you have confused the logic of your discussion for yourself and hence, as you will note in my comments, the flow of your discussion is compromised. This format places the onus on the reader to make sense of your ideas. That is actually your job as the writer.

It is quite late, but I am generally very flexible with dates as I understand the pressures of being a teacher. I do not usually penalize anyone for lateness.

For the challenges and suggestions, while I truly appreciated your effort to combine the two cases and comment on both at once, you perhaps were a bit general. Try to really think of the context of the two case studies and offer some suggestions that could really work in their particular setting.

I would like to suggest that you write in shorter paragraphs and then try to manipulate those paragraphs as discrete objects and move them around. You might find that you have reiterated and repeated yourself a few times, and that you have left an idea only to return to it a paragraph or two later. This makes your paper much longer than it should be.

I would like to suggest that you try to write in a formal essay style so that your ideas are logical and clearly linked – so that you can better show for example, cause and effect, sequence and relative importance of your ideas. Your somewhat bullet pointed style (without the bullet points) makes reading your work a bit more difficult and quite disjointed. There is no flow and so I found myself jumping back and forth to put your ideas together. You are supposed to put them together for your audience.

Although writing produces a linear text, you should not approach it that way. Start with smaller paragraphs and then see how you can manipulate and combine ideas to really be concise. That will really bring out your ideas and leave you more words at the end for the conclusion.

If you have clear distinct paragraphs, you can move them around like objects and see the overall coherence of your argument.

As for your arguments, you are putting conclusions up front and then discussing them afterwards. This makes your writing much longer as well. It also confuses the reader because you end up repeating yourself.

Published in PME 832 - Winter 2018
Monday, 13 November 2017 05:38

851 - Discussion Board Discussion

Dear students - I have read and commented on all of your mid course reflection, even those two or three that just came in the last couple days. I have given fairly extensive comments and am happy to give more. A few students have written for more feedback and I am always happy to give. I do see that only a few of you have gone to the mid-course reflections to open my comments. I encourage you do so.

I generally comment on the reflection itself, and then give some comments about:

  • The contents of your reflection
  • The contents of your posts
  • The content of your replies
  • A comment or two on the rubric.

ALso, I have noted to each of you that there is a grade of ~6% for each one for a total of 50%. I am not sure about marking each one separately as that is difficult and not really reflective of an overall effort at this level. If you want a grade to date, I will provide one.

Please be assured that I read every post, and usually about 80% of the replies. I hope you do too! For your information:

  • Total Replies (All Forums): 276
  • Total Threads (All Forums): 83

That is 359 items for you to read. Below is a table sorted in order of posts read. As you can see, I have read 257 posts and replies, and made 77 replies. I am very impressed with the person who read more than me!

You should have made at least 6 posts by now.

  Posts Replies Total items read
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paul
 
Published in PME 851 - Fall 2017
Monday, 13 November 2017 05:05

832 - Final assignment - Advice

To give you a bit more clarity on the final project, here are some comments aligned with the various elements of the project.

From the course, the following is the assignment description. (I have added comments to offer further explanation or examples).

Leadership in Professional Learning: Designing a Connected Classroom Program

This culminating task will help you to bring together your learning from all five modules in this course. For this final project, you will envision what connected learning could look like in your professional context (Context is important for this assignment – to really do it justice, try to describe the project within your own context as much as possible).  

As a culminating task, you will individually design a connected classroom project that you could use with your students (You will find it much more rewarding as well if you can design something that you could actually do. This will allow you to point out issues that may arise and give a practical edge to the work. As it is a project for your students, it needs a beginning, middle and end. There needs to be clearly defined goals for the project.).

You may choose to present this project as a project or unit plan or in another format so that you can share your ideas with your colleagues and inspire others to foster and create connections in their own teaching and learning (Whatever format you use to design your regular lessons might work, as long as it is readable and logical. For example, does your plan show sequence, materials, preparation, and the larger context of the semester or work within which the project is set?)

A successful project or program will include:

  • Strong and Authentic connection (to your larger semester or learning context, to your local learning environment e.g. are you in Canada or another country, and to the students own ‘world’)
  • Rich learning that uncovers the curriculum (For example, are there identifiable goals that require individual work, group or community work, and reflection? Do the students have a chance to contribute the design of the project?)
  • Ongoing learning– not a one-time thing (Are they developing skills as well as demonstrating new learning or knowledge? Are they building on previous work? Are there opportunities to use a product or skill beyond the end of the project?)
  • Theoretically-supported pedagogy (Although there are overlaps between some of the approaches you have examined, can we discern a clear adherence to some of the principles throughout the work?)
  • Technology-Enhanced opportunities (How are they recording their work, producing their work and preserving it for posterity? How are they sharing with others and interacting with their classmates and / or the community? How does technology help them do something they couldn’t otherwise do?)
  • Feasible design (Can YOU and your students actually do the project?)

Output: Connected Classroom Program and Written Rationale (35%):

Along with your connected classroom plan, please write a rationale (600 words MAXIMUM, double-spaced) detailing (Please keep to the word count within 20%. Interestingly, virtually no student ever goes under the word count. Use a proper essay / academic writing format as indicated in the blog post about your case students):

  • How the program relates to pedagogical approaches (cite scholarly work)
  • How you decided which digital technologies to incorporate
  • Who you could share this work with and how you might share it.
  • Why you chose this approach and how it shows professional growth from your previous teaching and/or planning.

Both components of this assignment (project plan and rationale) should be shared on the Leadership in Professional Learning Discussion Board.


For those of you who are not actually teaching, here is some feedback I provided to a student who also does not  teach.


“I have just read through the assignment again and watched the video (again!), and read your introduction to remind myself of your context, so I have some familiarity with your role. Here are a few thoughts.

Since you are a point of first contact, or at least, first sustained contact with parents, perhaps you could build on your appreciative inquiry work (https://positivechange.org/how-we-work/appreciative-inquiry-ai/ ) from the earlier assignment and try to think (Dream in the 4D model) of what you think parents could do to contribute to the school and their children’s success through your interactions.

Then, build your project around that (the next 2 ‘D’s, with the intent hopefully of attaining the 4th). I think that will easily comply with the requirements and the rubric.

For example,

  • What do they need from you to keep in touch with teachers?
  • How do they find out about the inner workings of the school and not just the parent-day events.
  • How can you facilitate communications between parents, and between parents and the school, parents and their teachers, and parents and their own children.

 Keep in mind the community aspect and your role at the school. If you use Appreciative Inquiry as your theoretical model for your work and build on the 4D model then you will be inspired to really do something that is real and that you could actually do.

You could even get your colleagues to give you an hour over lunch and work through the 4d model with them in the context of your project. They might give you some great ideas that you can work with.

Capture all your thinking and make it visible. That will help you to design the project part. You might want to use Prezi and think of your project as a process.

Published in PME 832 - Fall 2017
Sunday, 12 November 2017 20:47

832 - Case Study Feedback

The following comments are collected from all student submissions for the case study assignment. I have depersonalized all comments. I have then organized them into three sections. The first are in-text comments that relate to specific instances in the assignments. I selected some that I thought were revealing to the writing itself. The next two sections are from my general comments. I organized them by Positive feedback and constructive feedback. Some are based on the content of the assignment, and some are based on the technical aspects - the writing style and citations.

Although this feedback is for PME 832, students in my other course (PME 851) will be interested in the writing comments.


In-text Comments

Great start – could you add just one sentence showing some connection between the two, or why you chose them?

Powerful opening -really does a great job of introducing the case study!

It might be good to just introduce both schools here in one short sentence. You have both in your title, but you need to mention here just what you are doing.

What are some more concrete conclusions you could make from these two studies?

After reading the rest of your paper, I see that you have set up a great focus for your paper but you do not return to it.

Can you combine these two paragraphs and use the case study to highlight the main concepts of networked learning rather than discuss the approach separately and then go to the case study? It would give a greater coherence to your paper.

Careful with value-laden adjectives. This may be unfortunate, but I can make that determination from the facts and organization of your sentence. This sounds like being flexible is a bad thing.

Can you provide a conclusion that ties the two studies together or highlights some general improvements that both styles would benefit from – reflection seems to be a common theme.

Interesting conclusion. I would like to see a strong discussion about the comparisons between the two. I think this is where you could develop your ideas about pedagogic approaches more thoroughly to benefit from a greater context. You were asked to look at two studies in order to provide that wider context.

Great writing – very clear and succinct. The sentences are models of how to offer an idea and then support it with evidence.

Can you blend this with the previous sentences to provide a rich description of how the case study demonstrates place based learning? You writing rather separates the two and make me have to work harder to make the connections.

To be concise, just leave out colloquialisms. This is a different form of writing than a discussion board

I think you can combine this with the unpredictable learning issue more clearly. How will the reflections be assessed? Are these the self-assessments?

Only use tables for numerical data or very short text-based data. This all should be in paragraph form. It is harder to write perhaps, but easier to read.

You need to save these conclusions for later in your argument.

Careful – you are not really establishing an argument here. You need to be clear and concise when making these conclusions. I would expect such a statement to come after a few paragraphs leading me through a clear argument.

You have already talked about this topic a few times. Can you reorganize your paragraphs to bring a more coherent argument?


Positive feedback

This is a compelling piece and I can see that you have given a lot of thought to it and you have incorporated a range of literature.

This is a great paper. Although it is much longer than specified (~1800 word compared to 1000 assigned), it was so well written than I didn’t notice the extra words until the end. It might be useful for you to go through and see where you can cut down on your word count without losing any ideas.

You captured the essence of the assignment. Your writing is also a model of efficiency and organization. This contributes so much to the overall readability of the paper and makes what your thoughts and comments so much clearer to the reader. It also helps you to build your own understanding further.

I think you have thoroughly captured the pedagogic approaches demonstrated by each study as well. There could be arguments of other overlapping approaches that they might be modelling, but your arguments in support of the approaches you highlighted clearly support your opinions.

I was also pleased to see how you incorporated the literature. You used quotes and references very well. I would suggest that you could use a few more references to authors, especially when you are making some type of statement or claim.

This was very interesting, especially the HBS section. I thought you captured the essence of the AI and were able to suggest a meaningful way forward supported with a solid example.

I was also impressed with your breakdown of the School Grown case. You did a great job to bring in some of the literature into that section

You have given me a great piece of writing. You stepped out of the assignment box and discussed these two case studies in tandem, which really gave your writing a great focus and a means for you to put your comments into a wider context between the two studies.

You clearly met all the requirements and went well beyond.

This is a very thoughtful and complete paper – almost too complete - 1800 words! I appreciate the effort to piece this together and methodically go through the two projects. You really did cover a lot of ideas and almost every time I had a question, you answered it later in the paper.


Constructive feedback

You have given an interesting discussion of two solid case studies. However, I would like to see you really dig into the actual content of the courses. If you look at my comments above, you will see that you bring up important elements of the case studies but do not fully explore them.

You also have a tendency to use very colloquial language. Students who use this style often get a bit lost in the discussion and do not get to the point.

Your report is interesting and you have brought in experiences from your own work and tied it to the case studies. However, I did feel that you were jumping between the case studies and your work without a logical connection.

I also note that in some sections, you relied heavily on quotes, especially in the discussion of the learning approaches. When you are discussing the various sections, it is important to keep the approaches fresh in your mind and in the reader’s mind. So, by breaking it into section as you did, the connections between the sections broke down. This makes the overall reading of the report less effective and interesting.

I think you have picked two good projects and given a reasonable overview of them. You have also identified some pedagogic approaches within the projects and given examples to support your discussion.

By using tables as you did, I think you have confused the logic of your discussion for yourself and hence, as you will note in my comments, the flow of your discussion is compromised. This format places the onus on the reader to make sense of your ideas. That is actually your job as the writer.

I think that you would benefit greatly from reorganizing this into a proper essay style piece. If you view each paragraph as a solid and concrete idea, you will find that you can better organize each paragraph and then manipulate the ideas by moving the paragraphs back and forth until you find a logical flow to your ideas. Then, your writing will be much easier to read for yourself first as a useful piece of scholarship, and then for your readers as a demonstration of competency.

It is quite late, but I am generally very flexible with dates as I understand the pressures of being a teacher. I do not usually penalize anyone for lateness.

For the challenges and suggestions, while I truly appreciated your effort to combine the two cases and comment on both at once, you perhaps were a bit general. Try to really think of the context of the two case studies and offer some suggestions that could really work in their particular setting.

I understand that you were not specifically asked to compare the studies but I was hoping to see you draw out some comparisons or contrasts – otherwise there is no real value to having two case studies.

I think the paper is reasonably well written, but try to really focus on being concise. This is not a conversation – it is a one-way communication of ideas and I want to get to your points.

I think you have given a comprehensive coverage of the two case studies. As I noted above, I think some of your comments might need a bit further examination, but overall it was interesting.

Also, as I noted, I think there could be a greater focus on comparing the two studies. There are some similarities and there are distinct differences as you note in the conclusion. How can these two studies, and us, learn from their experiences and learn from each other at a more general level to improve their programs.

I would like to suggest that you write in shorter paragraphs and then try to manipulate those paragraphs as discrete objects and move them around. You might find that you have reiterated and repeated yourself a few times, and that you have left an idea only to return to it a paragraph or two later. This makes your paper much longer than it should be.

Nevertheless, I think you did a great job to really dig onto these case studies and bring out some highly practical issues. I appreciate the comments on social injustice and agree that many of these go unnoticed and hence are perpetuated. Systemic injustice of this nature gets embedded because people in positions of power (parents, teachers) often gloss over them leading students to believe they are not all that important.

I would like to suggest that you try to write in a formal essay style so that your ideas are logical and clearly linked – so that you can better show for example, cause and effect, sequence and relative importance of your ideas. Your somewhat bullet pointed style (without the bullet points) makes reading your work a bit more difficult and quite disjointed. There is no flow and so I found myself jumping back and forth to put your ideas together. You are supposed to put them together for your audience.

I agree with your points and think you have some great comments about bringing the community to help guide the projects in order to get more out of them. However, you did not explicitly state how students could be guided, but alluded to the companies who might hire these students. That is important, but can we be student focused?

I have been suggesting to other students that an extensive and logical next step in this paper might have been to try and compare / contrast the two studies more thoroughly. You were not asked to do so, but otherwise there is no real value to having two case studies. You would just do better to examine one more closely or have two separate papers.

Although writing produces a linear text, you should not approach it that way. Start with smaller paragraphs and then see how you can manipulate and combine ideas to really be concise. That will really bring out your ideas and leave you more words at the end for the conclusion.

If you have clear distinct paragraphs, you can move them around like objects and see the overall coherence of your argument.

I think the paper is reasonably well written, but try to really focus on being concise. This is not a conversation – it is a one-way communication of ideas and I want to get to your points.

I see that you have read widely and given a lot of thought to your work. However, there are a few difficulties with the organization, which cloud the impact of your thoughts.

As for your arguments, you are putting conclusions up front an the discussing them afterwards. This makes your writing much longer as well. It also confuses the reader because you end up repeating yourself.

Published in PME 832 - Fall 2017
Saturday, 21 October 2017 16:18

851 - Role of Education - Feedback

F2017 PME 851-001 Culture Curriculum and Pedagogy

Module 3:  - The Role of Education

Thanks for an interesting post. You had some provocative questions from ______ as well. I hope you answer them!

I wonder what you think about the need for human growth. There is a great book called Pedagogy of Freedom (Freire). How does education set us free? How does that then help us and our well-being?


Great questions! As a proponent of technology in Education, every time there is an article speaking negative about technology in Education, I get it forwarded to me from five different directions! So, is it bad? You ask if being ignorant of something is better? I cannot wait to read some responses!


Well said. That was a great overview and I thought that defining the terms under discussion was a great addition to the post. In many instances, we tend to make assumptions which lead us astray. Clarifying terms is an excellent approach. I would like to pose the same question that ________ has alluded to and that I have asked of another student. How do we maintain the distinction between our curriculum and our wider desire as educators to tend to the well being of our students?


Great post - very thoughtful. I appreciate your focus on being reflective and thoughtful about our world and our place in it. I find your comments about teaching language interesting because the English language does have so many oddities in it in terms of usage, spelling and other illogical aspects. That might be a good way to explore history and the lingering effects of tradition.

One question I have is, where do we as educators draw lines in terms of crossing out of our subject and focus and into wider issues that are not part of our mandate? In your case as an English teacher, when I taught English I was always tempted to bring in culture and other such issues which were outside of the curriculum. How do we balance these often competing needs?


Thanks! You have made some very interesting points. I agree that learning to be responsible is paramount to being, well, a responsible adult! Being accountable... Being fair and equitable...

I would like to know your thoughts around the balance between parental responsibilities and societal responsibilities as represented by schools and education systems? What happens when there is a conflict?


Very interesting discussion. My one concern with knowledge building, although I promote the idea vigorously within my own work, is that there needs to be input into the student's 'knowledge repository' at some point. This is why I am not a fan of discovery learning. Students contribute to, add to build upon and generate new understanding of existing knowledge, but they do need to have that initial input.

How do you accommodate or provide students with some 'grist' for their knowledge mill?


Thanks for your impassioned post. I can feel the drive you have for your students from here!

Two questions pop up for me. One is, when you discuss holistic education, and then focus on Economics and Business, I wonder how well you fit in Arts, culture, and science? I agree with Bill Clinton when he said, "Its the economy, stupid"! However, I once thought that all politicians should be businessmen. I now no longer think that!

My second question is in reference to your refraining from sharing your own opinions. I agree that this is an area fraught with difficulty, however how do you fit this approach with the notion that "It matters who the teacher is" (Keltchermans)? It is a fine balance, but at the end of the day, you do have opinions so...


Wonderful post! I think you have touched on some important points here. I do agree that it is not entirely wrong to fill our students’ brains with knowledge. That is certainly part of the role of education.

In my work with Medical education preparing students to be doctors, we use the term "training to be a doctor". A big part of their education is the sheer volume of content that they need to simply memorize. Of course, they need to be able to make sense of their vast knowledge, but they must learn it all first. How do you balance this in your classrooms?


I agree and have had many a conversation at my last position in Australia about the very topic of the purpose of Education. Now, in a School of Business, they thought that the only purpose was to get a job and their school mission reflected that fact: "Preparing students for enterprise futures" - 'enterprise' meaning businesses.

Many of your classmates are taking this course in order to have better career opportunities and I certainly hoped to get a better position when I embarked on my PhD. So, is there a balance? How do we account for the real goals of education, when "Education" costs so much?


Great stuff! I find that when we draw upon our own experiences, especially as teachers, we have the same goals and vision - to make us better people. I totally agree with you.

However, after my experiences in Australia (read my response to Christa), I have tried very hard to understand those people who get an education simply to get a better job and make more money. There are students that I am working with who are only becoming doctors because they want prestige and a big salary - are they wrong? What do you think? Try hard to see their perspective.


Very interesting post. I take from this that you think the role of education is to provide us with a sense of social responsibility and to help us use our skills to our best ability and in different settings. Interesting thoughts and I wonder if you have read Paulo Freire? He writes extensively about social justice and responsibility and one of my favourite books is "Pedagogy of Freedom". I recommend it to you.


I might suggest that in your future writing and in particular with your assignments, but in the boards as well, that you try to bring more focus to your writing. You post is very interesting, but you have not explicitly stated what you actually think, or given a clear opinion. You might want to structure your writing a bit more thoroughly in order to help the reader understand your train of thought. Also, you should endeavour to incorporate some of the readings into your writing as well so that you can reference what others have said about the topic and give your own thoughts both more weight, and an idea to talk about.

Published in PME 851 - Fall 2017

The following are some comments provided to students on  the points and issues of the assignment. The assignment was graded out of 4. About half received a 3/4 and the other half 4/4.

851 assignment 1 feedback

Context of assignment:

You have elaborated on a challenging question that includes cultural issues and a specific curriculum. Very interesting! I wonder if there is a bit of confusion over the actual issues here. On the one hand, you mention that as a biology teacher, you feel it is your responsibility to teach students how their bodies work. While I agree, that in itself is a personal or cultural issue and some may feel, for example, that they are too young, or that this is the responsibility of someone else.

On the other hand, the main issue you discuss is _____________. These issues might not be specifically Biology, but perhaps cross over into other subjects. Where do you as a teacher delineate between your specifics responsibilities and the larger curriculum?

Your discussion of getting the students to see each other as individuals and to appreciate the struggles that individuals face is a great way to show the similarities between people. I wonder how you get them to understand the differences as well? I would not want to gloss the differences in favour of the similarities. In terms of Cushner, this would perhaps not really help students adapt as much as they might. The differences will remain and that is part of the adaptation.

I did appreciate your comments on receiving new faculty into the school. However, I would like to read about some more detailed efforts to work with the homogenous body of students. Also, can you reference one of the readings into your work? How would Cushner’s IDI be measured with students in your school?

I think your approach is quite interesting. Have you tried using texts from other western countries as well? How would issues differ between Canada and the US for example? The US and the UK?

I would also be interested to know how the students respond. Do they seem to grasp the complexities? I understand this was a very short assignment, but for next time, a bit more focus on some of these questions would be great.

I appreciate your reference to diversity as individuals, and not being limited to culture. You are correct to assert that culture is merely the most obvious element of diversity.

I appreciate your references to differentiation as well, as a teaching strategy to support diversity and to help students to explore their own understanding of a topic and then have the ability to share that new understanding with their diverse classmates.

Cushner

I wonder how well your students would rate on the IDI from Cushner’s article? Can you give that some thought? I would also like to see a sentence or two about how you might blend the eastern need for summative assessments with the western desire to talk and interact in groups. There would be some interesting ways of offering the students a progress check on their development that might suffice for a summative assessment. This would then have a good blend of formative feedback as well.

I think you have touched on a couple of very interesting points. Cushner’s point that students think the world is getting worse while their own personal issues are fine indicates that students do not make connections between their own actions and the world. There is a disconnect there. What do you think?

I think your use of the _________ issue is a great focal point for your writing. Well done! I also liked your references to Cushner. You have referenced the article very well and pulled out the most salient issues.

It is clear and you have articulated a solid argument and understanding of Cushner’s article. You note that some issues are not good or bad, just different. This is interesting because it highlights the notion of evaluation versus assessment. We can assess something by noting the elements of the situation. We then assign a value to it once we have the facts. So, in the context of your example on plagiarism, the notion of plagiarism is generally considered to be bad. How do you reconcile this with the notion of being different?

Writing

I would ask that you focus on your writing. You have a very conversational style which makes for a more lengthy and wordy text.

Also, try to be a bit less conversational and more concise. This is very much an issue of academic style, which may be western based, but very international nevertheless.

Also, while you included several articles in your references, you did not actually mention them in your text. You will need to refer to them specifically in the body of the text in order to include them in your references.

You should try to reference one or two readings in your work to give you some focus and provide the reader (me) with a context for your writing. This will be much more important in longer pieces of writing.

General

This is a compelling piece. Very interesting. Your discussion of gender is very timely and I think that gender within culture often gets overlooked and women’s issues are often lost in the larger mix of cultural discussion. For example, that women in Saudi Arabia can now drive is only one small issue in a much larger gender gap in that country.

The other point is that you talk about being more inclusive although you do not use that term. I strongly encourage you to look up the concept of inclusion with regards to technology and in particular, special needs.

You clearly have given a lot of thought to multiculturalism in your career and you have given a clear, concise and highly articulate accounting of your school, environment and the efforts being made within to explore cultural differences and diversity.

 

Published in PME 851 - Fall 2017
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